March 2022


The job of an oil tanker is to transport various types of oil of varying quality, and these oils tend to produce vapours while being loaded for transportation. These vapours can be present even when there is no cargo on board and can cause severe and widespread destruction if they come into contact with oxygen-rich air.

The resulting explosion can endanger not only human life and property, but it can also destroy marine life because it occurs in the middle of the sea or ocean.

The pollution of the environment is caused by the smoke produced by the combustion of such vapours. This is where the Inert Gas System comes in to save us from an explosion. With an inert gas plant, this is possible. The ship boiler’s flue gas can also be used for inerting.

The flue gas system cleans and cools the boiler flue gas before delivering it to the cargo tanks during unloading and tank washing. This is sufficient because the flue gas already contains less than 5% oxygen.

How Inert Gas System Works? 

An Inert Gas System (IGS) on a ship is a system used to prevent an explosion in a tanker’s cargo tanks. While pumping out the flammable liquid cargo, an inert gas (often flue gas from ship boilers) is also pumped into the system.

The IGS’s primary function is to prevent the combustion of hydrocarbon gases. Inert gases are used for this because they contain less than 8% oxygen, which is significantly less than what is required for combustion.

The Inert Gas System’s job is to spread the inert gas over the flammable one, the cargo oil, increasing the LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) and decreasing the UEL (Ultra Explosive Limit) (Upper Explosive Limit).

LEL denotes the lowest concentration at which the vapours can be ignited, while UEL denotes the highest concentration at which the vapour explodes. All of this is done to reduce the concentration to 10%, which creates an atmosphere in which the hydrocarbons inside the tank can no longer burn. The inert gas safety limit is 5%. As an anti-explosion measure, all tanker ships use the Inert Gas System.

The Inert Gas System And Its Components 

The following components are used in the IG system of oil tankers:

Exhaust Gases Source

The inert gas source is the flue gas from the boiler or the main engine exhaust.

Inert Gas Isolation Valve 

When not in use, it acts as a supply valve from uptake to the rest of the system, isolating both systems.

Scrubbing Tower 

Water sprays and baffle plates cool, clean, and moisten the flue gas as it enters from the bottom. This method reduces SO2 levels by up to 90% while also removing soot.


Moisture is absorbed from treated flue gas. Polypropylene is the most common material.

Gas Blower 

There are two kinds of them in general. One is for IG operations, while the other is for topping up. A steam-driven turbine blower is used for the former, while an electricity-powered blower is used for the latter.

I.G Pressure Regulating Valve 

The pressure within the tank varies depending on the type of oil, its properties, and the atmospheric pressure.

To keep this change under control and to keep the blower fan from overheating, a pressure valve is attached next to the blower discharge and directs excess air back to the scrubbing tower.

Deck Seal 

The deck seal keeps the blower gases from returning to the cargo tanks. Wet deck seals are typically used, as well as a demister, to remove moisture from these gases.

Mechanical Non-Return Valve 

It’s a non-return mechanical device that’s installed alongside the deck seal.

Deck Isolating Valve 

This valve isolates the engine room completely from the deck.

Pressure Vacuum (Pv) Breaker 

The PV breaker aids in preventing unwelcome changes in cargo pressurisation. It consists of a vent equipped with a flame trap that prevents ignition during port loading and discharging operations.

Cargo Tank Isolating Valves 

Many cargo holds on a ship are equipped with isolating valves, the operation of which is controlled by the most responsible officers onboard. The valves regulate the flow of inert gas into the hold.

Mast Riser 

The mast riser’s job is to keep the inert gas pressure positive while the cargo is being loaded. The mast riser is kept open to avoid pressurising the cargo tank during loading.

Safety And Alarm System 

It goes without saying that a system of this complexity will require its own safety features to protect itself and its own machinery.

Inert Gas System Maintenance

To ensure proper maintenance and operation of the inert gas system, the deck and engine departments should work closely together.

It is especially important to ensure that non-return barriers, particularly the deck water seal or block and bleed valves, function properly so that there is no possibility of petroleum gas or liquid petroleum passing back into the machinery spaces.

A record of inspection of the inert gas plant, including defects and their rectification, should be kept on board to demonstrate that the inert gas plant is fully operational and in good working order.

Degradation of Inert gas Quality

Tanker crews should be aware of the possibility of inert gas quality degradation within tanks as a result of air being drawn into the tanks as a result of inert gas or cargo system failure. Consider the following:

  • If the pressure in the system drops due to temperature changes at night, the inert gas is not promptly replenished.
  • Tank apertures are kept open for longer periods of time to allow for tank gauging, sampling, and dipping.

When water is drained from a non-inerted tank, air enters the drainings and may eventually enter inerted tank atmospheres.

If an eductor is used on recirculation to the slop tank, the volume of air entrained in this manner can be especially large. As a result, when liquid is drained to the slop tank, the inert gas quality in all tanks must be closely monitored.

The UAE has an online shopping addiction. Recent events are only set to accelerate this trend, with annual growth estimated at 23% through 2022. And for those looking to trade online, there can be few better locations than Dubai. The emirate is ideally located to deal with every primary world market, has a 0% personal and corporate tax rate, and numerous free trade zones offering custom tax exemption, zero currency restrictions, and other rewarding benefits.

Plus, it’s easy to apply for a trade license and form a company in the UAE with the proper expert guidance. So, if you’re looking to start an online business in Dubai, here are five simple online business ideas dubai to get you on your way.

Start a digital marketing agency.

Digital marketing is a huge business in this part of the world. Arabic language countries account for around 70% of internet users, while the UAE has more active internet users (80%) than the European average (66%). This presents a vast potential market for online marketers and their clients.

Moreover, provided you have the skills to make it a success, starting a digital marketing agency is quick and simple online business ideas dubai. It would help if you had a trade license, a website, and a place to work. And once you have a process in place, there’s little need for further investment. Over time, you can grow your client base and increase your recurring income with minimal impact on your overheads.

Set up a job search portal

Dubai’s recruiters are almost always in demand. The emirate is home to thousands of businesses with aspirations of growth, and they all need new hires to achieve those aims.

And today’s job market is almost all online.

Of course, in such a vibrant business environment, recruitment-related industries can be a little crowded. But there remains plenty of opportunity for those who can carve a niche.

Build a food and grocery delivery app – or pay someone else

The online food delivery market has been overgrown in recent years. The global market will exceed 100 billion this year – and could end up far higher than initial predictions given the coronavirus pandemic and its resulting increase in demand.

Creating an online activity booking platform

What’s more, after a frustrating year, we can expect the tourism authorities to exceed even their high standards when encouraging visitors to our shores in 2022. That’s all to say; there’s never been a better time to get into the Dubai tourism market. And running an online booking platform is a great way to do just that. You could sell tickets to local attractions, activities such as skydiving, or packages at local hotels, restaurants and bars. In most cases, you’ll earn a commission on every successful booking.

Sell your skills on a tutoring marketplace.

More people than ever are learning online. Whether supplementing their education, revising for exams, or learning a new skill, there is plenty of demand for tutoring services.

This sector has grown considerably during the pandemic, as more of us are getting comfortable with virtual experiences, whether they’re a business, social or education.

And the best part is, you’ll likely already have all that’s required to start this online business ideas dubai.

Dubai is the most populated of the UAE’s emirates, as well as one of the world’s most prosperous business centres. It’s easy to see how far Dubai’s reach has gone, with expatriates accounting for more than 80% of the population and representing over 200 different countries.

It is not so hard to understand why the emirate is so popular. Doing business in this region of the world has several advantages, including a favorable tax structure, a welcoming environment, and a fantastic location.

So, if you’re planning to establish a business in 2022, these are some of the numerous advantages of settling in Dubai.


Here comes the list of advantages to creating a sole establishment UAE:

  • Quick Formation

It is simple and quick to start a proprietary corporation. Only a few legal requirements must be met. There is no requirement to register or engage in a contract with anyone. It can be easily formed and dissolved.

  • Decision Making

Owners can move quickly and dispose of items. If they need to consult with anyone, opportunities might not be available for long. They can give a big discount to a loyal customer at the moment if it gets them more business.

  • Keep in Touch

The owner can contribute his skills, knowledge, and expertise. He can develop and implement his ideas. He can make his fantasies come true. Using his brilliance to his advantage, he can make things happen. Every action taken by a business owner is one-of-a-kind, unusual, and convincingly authentic. Small business owners might make a fortune by putting in that extra effort.

  • Dynamic Business

Everything can be cut based on the fabric provided to the owner. He can invest more money in the venture if there is a demand. He can expand his reach and scale. If the market is slow, he can keep a close eye on everything and order only what the end-users want. He’ll be able to keep the presentation running smoothly as the tastes and preferences of the audience change.

  • Control Business Operations

The owner can effectively utilise his resources. He can eradicate all forms of waste. He has command of the show’s budget. He understands how to get the most out of each procedure.

The threat of losing control of his company and being cornered by competitors keeps him awake, watchful, and careful. Therefore, it is best to hire a business formation company in Dubai to handle all the tasks.

Singapore is a popular destination for foreigners looking to migrate to work and live because of its developing technology, excellent technical advancements, and diverse international talent from across the world. As we’ll see later on in this essay, obtaining the status of “Permanent Resident” is the ultimate goal for most people in Singapore. This is because it comes with a broad variety of benefits.

About the Work Visas

Work visas are available to foreign nationals who want to work in the United States (i.e. Singapore Employment Pass, Personalized Employment Pass, S-Pass). Even yet, these advantages pale in contrast to the many advantages that come with being a lawful permanent resident. For immigration singapore  here are the things you need to know.

However, you will not be allowed to immediately apply for Permanent Residency. A work visa and a minimum of 12 months of employment in the country are required before you may submit an application. Professionals, Technical Personnel and Skilled Workers Scheme (PTS) make it possible to shift from a work visa to permanent residence. According to government estimates, Singapore will have more than 521,000 permanent residents by 2020.

A Singapore Permanent Resident is someone who has been granted permanent residency in Singapore

When a foreigner decides to make Singapore their second home, they are awarded the status of a Singapore Permanent Resident (PR). Political asylum status, on the other hand, does not entitle a person to the same rights as a citizen. One of the most exclusive citizenships in the world, it comes with its own set of eligibility criteria, as well as a list of obligations. To apply pr singapore it is important.

Permanent residency in the United States offers several benefits

With a booming economy, many employment and entrepreneurial opportunities, and a rapidly expanding entertainment and leisure sector, Singapore is one of Asia’s regional powerhouses. Because of the benefits of becoming a permanent resident in our country, foreigners are keen to take advantage of this opportunity.

They will be able to take advantage of the following benefits after they become lawful permanent residents:

The benefits of being a Singapore Permanent Resident are many

Continuity in Immigration Law and Policy

The opportunity to live, study, work, and perhaps retire in Singapore is one of the most major advantages of being a permanent resident here. Your PR status will only need to be renewed every five years. You won’t need any further visas to enter or exit Singapore if you have a permanent residence and a valid Re-Entry permit.

Permanent residents may take benefit of Singapore’s superior living and working standards, which are not available to non-Singaporeans.

Possibilities for business and job security

Once you become a permanent resident, you won’t have to deal with the hassle of applying for new work permits each time you change jobs. In the event that your application is rejected, you will be compelled to leave the country and have to reapply for a new work visa.

There are no such risks associated with Singaporean citizenship and permanent residence (PR), which allows you to change jobs at any time you choose. It’s true that they are authorized to obtain government employment and to perform many part-time jobs at once.


Fruitful organizations that exist in a cutthroat industry climate know very well about the need to acquire and keep up with maintainable marks of separation as a predominant client incentive. They likewise comprehend the idea of client incentive – that it’s anything but a solitary endeavor as client’s encounters, inclinations need and needs, vacillate, advance, and change over the long haul.

The essential elements of a customer value proposition

  • It is Sustainable: Not effortlessly replicated, subbed, or dependent upon fast outdated nature or then again, on the off chance that it is, the better than ever client offer should be presently synchronous turn of events. To fulfill this necessity, you should have the option to execute this incentive for a lot of time which differs relying on the force of your cutthroat climate.
  • The customer value proposition is created by conducting a thorough needs analysis: Beginning with a total comprehension of the client, figuring out what their necessities, inclinations, and prerequisites of a superior arrangement would be that addresses or surpasses these issues and additionally inclinations. Once more, deciding how these distinguished necessities are presently being fulfilled, and applying the litmus test to a better item or administration in the space of adequacy, moderateness, and accommodation.
  • The customer value proposition is truly customer experience-driven: A compelling incentive is communicated as far as genuine advantages, as characterized by the client, through their experience from the real or anticipated utilization of the item or potentially administration. A customer value proposition should be incorporated into all client confronting exercises, promoting materials, and informing.
  • Client approval and validation: To abstain from being viewed as promoting puffery, your incentive should be validated by genuine contextual analyses as well as tributes. You want to exhibit where the client not just chosen to buy your item or administration but did as such from your organization because of reasons that you can prove. Client tributes are basic and should be communicated from a client’s perspective. They help to prove and verify the client’s offer.
  • The customer value proposition is basic, yet particular and widely inclusive: By this I mean it ought to reflect two parts of what is called esteem components: one is places of equality and the second one is marks of distinction. Marks of equality are components in the same manner as the following best other option while points of distinction are components that improve your item then the following best other option. The third worth component is called disputed matters; they emerge when you and the client differ concerning how the components contrast with the following best other option. Many organizations have embraced the Net Promoter Score which is a metric that produces the result from P – D = NPS where:

P = Promoters are steadfast aficionados who stay with purchasing from them and ask their companions to do likewise and D = detractors who are those clients caught in a miserable relationship.

  • Your customer value proposition is measurably better than the opposition’s customer value proposition: All client incentives ought to be founded on substantial marks of distinction, communicated in both subjective, quantitative, and at last, financial terms. A compelling customer value proposition has a reverberating concentration on a couple of points of equality and additionally points of contrasts.